Original Article

Evaluation of Friction of Different Ligation Methods In Accordance With and Without Bracket Types


  • Ridvan Bayri
  • H. Nuray Yilmaz
  • Evin Koc
  • Nazan Kucukkeles

Turk J Orthod 2013;26(2):72-79


The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the frictional values of 3 different ligation methods with different bracket types using a crowded configuration.

Materials and Methods:

Three aesthetic conventional brackets (monocrystalline ceramic, polycrystalline ceramic, microfilled copolymer) and 1 metal bracket were evaluated in terms of friction. All brackets were tested in a crowded configuration of bracket alignment with 0.014 nickel titanium archwire in place. All brackets were ligated with metal ligatures, elastomeric ligatures, and nonconventional elastomeric ligatures. For accurate and repeatable placement on metal plates, a special jig was designed. The pulling speed was set to 10 mm/min for 30 seconds for each sample.


When bracket structure was not considered, nonconventional elastomeric ligature produced the lowest friction. For brackets ligated with elastomeric modules, microfilled copolymer bracket showed the lowest friction and monocrystalline ceramic bracket showed the highest friction. When nonconventional ligatures were used, microfilled copolymer bracket showed the least friction.


Nonconventional elastomeric ligatures can be recommended for clinical use because they combine the aesthetics of modules and low friction values. Microfilled copolymer bracket combined with nonconventional elastomeric ligatures had the least friction.

Keywords: Brackets, Friction, Ligation Methods